- Maximum slope for hand-propelled
wheelchair ramps should be 1" of rise to every
12" of length (4.8 degree angle; 8.3% grade).
- Maximum slope for power chairs
should be 1.5" rise to 12" length (7.1 degree
angle; 12.5% grade).
- Minimum width should be 36"
(inside rails) – (48" is ideal).
- The "deck" or surface of the
ramp should be set down between a side-rail assembly such
that there is about a 2" curb or lip along the edges
of the ramp surface. Decking could consist of 1" X
6" pressure treated pine, (or 3/4" pressure
treated plywood applied to a frame).
- If possible, the end of the deck (where
it meets the lower ground surface) should be beveled to
provide a smooth transition from the ramp to level
ground. Alternatively, a sheet of 10 Ga. steel at least
10" long and sized to fit the width of the ramp
could be used to span the space between the deck surface
and the walk or driveway surface at the end of the ramp. This piece should overlap the ramp deck by 2"
and be fastened securely with 4 large countersunk
flat-head wood screws.
- A level platform of at least 5′ X 5′
should be at the top of ramp to allow for wheelchair
maneuvering. If the entranceway opens outward, there
should be 1′ of surface area extending from the side of
the door opening to allow motion to the side without
backing the chair during door opening. This landing
should not be considered part of the overall
"run"/length of the ramp. Any turning point
along the ramp needs a level landing. If the turn is a
right angle (90 degrees), the landing should be a minimum
of 5′ by 4′. If a "switchback" of 180 degrees
is constructed, the level landing should measure at least
5′ X 8′. Ramps longer than 30′ should provide a platform
every 30′ for purposes of safety and to create
opportunity for rest.
- Hand rails should be provided for any
ramp having a slope of more than 5% (i.e.- greater than
1:12). These should extend an inch beyond the top and
bottom of the ramp and should be located 32" from
the ramp surface.
- Buildings modified for accessibility
should provide at least 2 remotely located accessible
entrances for exit in case of emergency.
- There should be no step or bump exceeding
one-half inch at doors or thresholds and there should be
a level area 5′ by 5′ at doors. 1′ to 1’6" space to
the side of door on the pull side must be clear.
- Slip resistant surfaces – carborundum
grit, strips, rubber, sand sprinkled on wet paint, or
rough ("broom finish") concrete are acceptable
- Ramps should have a 5′ straight and level
surface at the bottom to allow adequate stopping distance.